Flowers Language

images Flowers LanguageThrough generations, flowers, their colors, numbers as well as groups, have been used to convey a particular message. In addition, the way flowers were worn or presented also had special meanings. Unfortunately, most of this silent yet complete language has been lost primarily because of lack of use.

The language of flowers, or floriography, was a way of communication during the Victorian era. At that time the individuals used to express their feelings through coded messages with the help of variety of flowers and floral arrangements.

History:
It is thought that the Turks seemed to develop flower meanings way back in the 17th century. Lady Mary Wortley, the wife of the British ambassador to Constantinople, had multiple visits to Turkey. In 1718, she wrote a detailed letter on the “Secret Language of Flowers” that she had discovered. Europe quickly picked up the idea.

The first ever flower language dictionary was introduced with the name Le Language des Fleurs, in 1819. This small book, written by Louise Cortambert (Pen Name: Madame Charlotte de la Tour), became a popular reference on the subject.

During the Victorian era (reign of Queen Victoria 1837-1901), the flowers language flourished a lot. The language became very popular among the Victorian women as it allowed them to communicate feelings and meanings which they were not allowed for as per strict propriety of times. Tussie-mussies, a bunch of flowers wrapped with a lace and tied with a satin ribbon became a valued and admired at that time.

In 1884, a whole book on the subject was published in London with the title “The Language of Flowers”. The book got high popularity and respect. Since then, this book by Jean Marsh, illustrated by Kate Greenway, has been the standard source for Victorian flower meaning.

Some Famous Flower Meanings:

Flower Meaning
Almond Flowers Hopealmond 150x150 Flowers Language
Anemone ForsakenAnemone flower 150x150 Flowers Language
Aster Symbol of loveAster 150x150 Flowers Language
Basil Best wishesBasil 150x150 Flowers Language
Bay leaf “I change but in death”Bay leaf 150x150 Flowers Language
Bell flower, white Gratitudebellflower white 150x150 Flowers Language
Bluebell ConstancyBluebell flowers 150x150 Flowers Language
Campanula GratitudeCampanula 150x150 Flowers Language
Carnation, pink I’ll never forget youCarnation pink 150x150 Flowers Language
Carnation, red My poor heart aches for youCarnation red 150x150 Flowers Language
Carnation, striped RefusalCarnation striped 150x150 Flowers Language
China rose Beauty always newChina rose 150x150 Flowers Language
Chrysanthemum LoveChrysanthemum 1 150x150 Flowers Language
Coreopsis Love at first sightCoreopsis 150x150 Flowers Language
Daffodil Regarddaffodil flowers 150x150 Flowers Language
Daisy Innocence, new-born, “I share your sentiment”Daisy flowers 150x150 Flowers Language
Fern SincerityFern 150x150 Flowers Language
French Marigold JealousyFrench Marigold 150x150 Flowers Language
Gardenia EcstasyGardenia flower 150x150 Flowers Language
Honeysuckle Bonds of loveHoneysuckle 150x150 Flowers Language
Ivy Fidelity, friendship, marriageIvy 150x150 Flowers Language
Jasmine GraceJasmine flower 150x150 Flowers Language
Lavender Luck, devotionLavender flower 150x150 Flowers Language
Lily Purity, modestyLily floral 150x150 Flowers Language
Lily of the Valley Purity, the return of happinessForest lily of the valley 150x150 Flowers Language
Lily, Calla BeautyLily Calla 150x150 Flowers Language
Marigold Health, grief or despairmarigold 150x150 Flowers Language
Orchid Love, beauty, refinementorchid flower 150x150 Flowers Language
Primrose I can’t live without youEvening Primrose 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, red Love, passionrose red 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, pink Grace, beautyrose pink 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, yellow Friendshiprose yellow 150x150 Flowers Language
Rosemary Remembrance, constancyRosemary 150x150 Flowers Language
Tuberose VoluptuousnessTuberose 150x150 Flowers Language
Tulip, red My perfect lover, reclamation of lovetulip red white 150x150 Flowers Language
Violet Loyalty, modesty, humilityViolet flowers 150x150 Flowers Language
Violet, blue Faithfulnessblue violet 150x150 Flowers Language
Wheat Riches of the continuation of lifewheat Flowers Language
Willow, weeping Mourningweeping willow 150x150 Flowers Language
Yew Sorrowyew 150x150 Flowers Language

Rose and the Flower Language:

Rose is the flower that is most commonly used to convey some special messages. Some details of meaning of the Rose are listed below.

Rose Meaning
Rose, Black You’re my obsessionBlackRose 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, Champagne You’re tender and lovingRose Champagne 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, Orange You’re my secret loveorange rose 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, Pink Brilliant complexion, the glow of your smile, perfect happinesspink rose 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose Red Passionate love, I love youRoseRed 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, White Spiritual love, Innocence and puritywhite rose1 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, White and Red We are inseparableRose White and Red 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, Yellow Friendship, jealousy, I am not worthyrose yellow1 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, Bridal Happy loveRose Bridal 150x150 Flowers Language
Rose, Single stem SimplicityRose Single stem 150x150 Flowers Language

Lilies

casablanca lily 150x150 LiliesLilies are one of the most gorgeous and graceful summer-blooming flowers. Lilies belong to the Lilium genus which contains more than 100 species. Lilies offer a vast variety of sizes, colors and shapes, and are commonly available all across the globe, particularly in the northern hemisphere.
Lilies are thought to be the oldest cultivated ornamental flowers, having existed in gardens 3000 years ago. The lily became the symbol of chastity and virtue with the advance of Christianity. The Easter lily symbolizes Virgin Mary.

Lily and Flower Language:
easter lily 150x150 LiliesLily is symbolically used to express purity and refined beauty. However, different colors and types can convey different meanings. For example, white lily symbolizes modesty and virginity, orange lily symbolizes passion, yellow lily symbolizes gaiety, lily of the valley symbolizes sweetness and purity of heart.

Popularity of Lily:
The imperial beauty and the distinct variety that can symbolize very special expressions make Lily the most popular flowers for gifting purposes. In fact, Lilies are ranked as the fourth most popular flowers in the world, while the second most popular flowers in the UK. Stargazer and Cassablanca lily bouquets and lily bulbs as well as potted lily plants are popular floral gifts.

cala lily 150x150 LiliesWhat are True Lilies?
There are many types of flowers which are considered as “Lilies”. However, many of them, for example day lily, water lily, arum lily actually belong to other flowering plants groups. True Lilies feature fleshy scales without protective outer coating, and they are never dormant.

Varieties in Lily:
Lily offers a vast variety of flowers, amongst which only groups like Asiatics and Orientals are the most popular and widely grown flowers. Asiatic Lilies feature small flowers, a wide array of colors, and light fragrance, while Oriental Lilies offer large flowers with only a few colors having strong valentine calla lily 150x150 Liliesfragrance. Another type is the Longiflorum hybrid Lilies that features large funnel shaped flowers, usually white, having strong sweet scent.

Growing Lilies:
Lilies can be grown from seeds; however they will take a longer time (may be five to six years) to bloom. This is why bulbs are much preferred to grow Lilies. Lilies are usually planted in the garden during fall or spring season. They can also be grown in containers. A cool, porous and well drained soil is essentially required for their good growth. Adding excessive organic matter will improve clay or sandy soils that would be lilies oriental1 150x150 Liliesconsidered as future investment for good bed preparation which will result in the bulbs that will stay in place for several years. During summer, Lilies enjoy direct sun all morning with partial shade during hot afternoon hours.

Plant Care:
Daily watering is not required. However, while watering, be sure to water deeply enough to reach the bulb. During the growing season, add a balanced fertilizer every few weeks, but avoid high-nitrogen fertilizers. Remove seedpods when they appear, and also eliminate stems and foliage when leaves become yellow. Remove mulch during late fall season. Removing fade blossoms is good not only to keep Lilies blooming, but also to prevent plant from consuming its energy in seed production.

Tulips

tulip flower 267x300 TulipsA tulip is a bulbous plant classified to the genus Tulipa, comprising more than 100 species of ostentatious flowers. The tulip, or LALE (native names in Iran and Turkey), is a flower native to a vast area encompassing parts of Africa, Asia, and Europe.

Tulips are generally associated with The Netherlands. However, commercial cultivation of the flower started during the Ottoman Empire. Special attention has been given to these beautiful flowers in classic as well as modern Persian literature. The tulip was a topic for Persian poets way back in the thirteenth century. Tulip era (or Lale Devri in Turkish) is the term used for the era during which the black Ottoman Empire was wealthiest.

The species native range comprises southern Europe, North Africa, and Asia from Anatolia and Iran in the west to northeast of China. The Pamir and Hindu Kush mountains and the prairielands of Kazakhstan are the axis of variety of the genus.

Numerous species along with many hybrid species are grown in gardens, used as pot plants or as fresh cut flowers. The species include short (4 inch) low-growing plants to tall (27 inch) upright plants, which may even grow in the cold and snowy winter. The flowers are cup shaped and are colorful as well as attractive. The flower comprises three petals and three sepals. Most of the species usually have one flower per stem.

Tulips are native to mountainous areas. They require mild climates with a period of cool dormancy. They prosper in climates with long cool springs and early summers. However, in warmer areas of the world they are usually grown as spring blooming annual plantings.

Classification
According to the flower morphology and plant size, Tulips are classified into fifteen divisions.
•    Div.1: Single early- includes cup shaped single flowers. Flower size = 3 inches (max). Blooming period: Early to mid season. Plant height = 15-45cm

•    Div. 2: Double early- includes fully double flowers; Flower size = 8cm (bowl shaped). Plant height = 30-40cm

•    Div. 3: Triumph- offers single, cup shaped flowers; Flower size = 6cm wide; Plant height = 35-60cm; Blooming period = Mid to late season

•    Div. 4: Darwin Hybrid- offers ovoid shaped single flowers; Flower size = 8cm wide; Plant height= 50-70cm; Blooming period = Mid to late season

•    Div. 5: Single late – offers cup or goblet-shaded flowers; Flower size = up to 8cm wide; Plant height = 45-75cm; Blooming period = late season; Extra features = some plants produce multi-flowering stems.
•    Div. 6: Lily-flowered
•    Div. 7: Fringed (Crispa)
•    Div. 8: Viridiflora
•    Div. 9: Rembrandt
•    Div. 10: Parrot
•    Div. 11: Double late
•    Div. 12: Kaufmanniana
•    Div. 13: Fosteriana (Emperor)
•    Div. 14: Griegii
•    Div. 15: Species (Botanical)
An additional, though unofficial, division is Multiflowering. It includes the same tulips from the first 15 divisions with the distinction of having multiple blooms per bulb.
If tulips are classified by their flowering season, they could be listed as:

Early Flowering Mid-season Flowering Late season flowering
Single Early Tulips Parrot Tulips Single Late Tulips
Double Early Tulips Triumph Tulips Double Late Tulips
Fosteriana Tulips Darwin Hybrid Tulips Lily-flowering Tulips
Kaufmanniana Tulips Fringed Tulips
Greigi Tulips Viridiflora Tulips
Species Tulips Rembrandt Tulips

Chrysanthemums

Chrysanthemums, frequently called mums, are a type of about 30 species of Perennial Flowering plants. The flowers are native to Asia and northeastern Europe. The chrysanthemum is also recognized as the flower of November.chrysanthemum3 300x208 Chrysanthemums

Culinary uses:
In some parts of Asia, a sweet drink is made by boiling yellow or white chrysanthemum flowers. This beverage is known simply as “chrysanthemum tea” and has many medicinal uses. For example the chrysanthemum tea is used for assistance in recovery from influenza. In Chinese cuisine, chrysanthemum leaves are steamed or boiled and consumed as greens. Petals of chrysanthemum are also used in soap making.

Medicinal uses:
Extracts of Chrysanthemum stem and flower have been shown potential medicinal properties, including anti-HIV-1, antibacterial and antimycotic.

Insecticidal uses:
Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium or Pyrethrum is a natural source of insecticide. The active components known as pyrethrins, enclosed in the seed cases, are extracted and sold in the form of an oleoresin. This is applied as a powder or as a mixture with water or oil which works as a natural insect repellent. Pyrethrins particularly inhibit female mosquitoes from biting. According to NASA Clean Air Study, Chrysanthemum plants are also found helpful in reducing indoor air pollution.

Cultural significance and symbolism:
In some European countries including France, Spain, Croatia, Poland, and Italy as well as China, Korea and Japan, white chrysanthemums are only used for funerals. In United States, the flower symbolizes positivism and cheerfulness while in some other countries, it represents honesty.

Chrysanthemum has always been admired as well as honored in different countries around the world. Some examples may be seen below.

China– A dominant Chinese poet Tao Qian is said to favor the Chrysanthemum. Besides, Chrysanthemums are focused in hundreds of Chinese poems. Chrysanthemum symbolizes nobleness. Also it is one of the 4 symbolic seasonal flowers.

Japan– The position of the Japanese Emperor is given the name “Chrysanthemum Throne”. The Supreme Order of the Chrysanthemum is a Japanese honor awarded by the emperor. The “Nihonmatsu Chrysanthemum Dolls Exhibition” is held in every autumn. The city of Nihonmatsu hosts this exhibition in historical ruin of Kasumigajo castle. The Arisaka rifles required to be stamped with the chrysanthemum during the production.

United States– In 1961, Chrysanthemums were recognized as the official flower of the city of Chicago

Australia– Australians have a tradition to give their mother a bunch of chrysanthemums on Mother’s Day.

Plant care:
Chrysanthemums may grow well in any location; however they cherish in a sunny and well drained environment. Without proper drainage the plants are more likely to perish. They are hardy; they require very little attention as far as the plant care is concerned. Enrich the soil with a 5-10-5 fertilizer once in the spring and once in the fall to boost growth and flower production respectively. Older mums require regular pinching in order to make the plant more compact and bushy for an added quantity of flowers. But the pinching should be done as late as July 4th; after that there is a risk of pinching off the developing flower buds.

Popular Colors of Chrysanthemums
WHITE AND CREAM, YELLOW, ORANGE, BRONZE, RED, PINK/MAUVE, LAVENDAR/PURPLE.

More Popular Flowers

Through generations, flowers have been used to convey sentiments. The popularity of flowers may vary from country to country, culture to culture and occasion to occasion.

Popular flowers in America:

Roses:
Roses are perhaps the most popular flowers in America, and are available in countless varieties which include tea roses, climbing roses, long stem roses, and other new hybrids developed with different color combinations and distinct petal shapes.

Lilies:
Having a heady fragrance, lilies are feminine and showy flowers. Exotic Stargazer lilies are preferred for bouquets as they are the most aromatic among all the lily varieties.

Daisies:
Daisies are most often included in a cheery bouquet. Gerbera daisies feature large heads in soft pastels like yellow, pink and powder white as well as in bright colors such as fuchsia, orange, and shocking yellow.

Tulips:
Tulip comes in variety that includes the Double Early, Darwin Hybrid, Single Early, Single Late and Fringed variety. The Darwin Hybrid is mostly tied in tight bunches to be used for wedding bouquets.

Orchids:
Orchids are perhaps one of the most expensive and exotic flowers. Phalaenopsis, or moth orchid, features large elegant flower heads and broad green leaves, and are mostly used in plant gifts rather than bouquets.

Popular Irish Flowers
The variety of Irish flowers includes more than 800 types of flowers having different colors and different plant families. Following is a list of types of popular Irish flowers.

St. Dabeoc’s Heaths:
A popular Irish flower from the Lusitanian Flora family that grows in clusters and features a purple-pink, bell-shaped flower with four lobes.

Irish Eyebrights:
Another popular Irish flower from the same family that is small and white, with a small lower lip.

Large-Flowered Butterworts:
The flower is violet-blue with a white center and has a slender, straight stem.

Golden Samphires:
Golden samphires appear in golden-yellow clusters and thus resemble sunflowers.

Blue-Eyed Grass:
These perennials are from the Lilaceae Flora family, and are small and blue with yellow centers.

Popular Flowers for Weddings:
Calla lilies are small, white blooms that mean happiness in marriage. Having the traditional wedding colors, such as yellow, white and burgundy, Calla lilies are elegant and great for wedding bouquets arrangements. Stephanus are a popular choice for wedding bouquets. They are small, white flowers that mean happiness in marriage.

Tulips are great for a bride as they offer a variety of colors. A cream colored tulip means a forever love and affection for the partner.

Roses are undoubtedly the most preferred flowers used in weddings. They offer various colors; every color has its own meaning.

Hydrangeas, come in a bunched form, are becoming more popular in wedding bouquets as they do not require much effort for making a bouquet.

Lilies of the Valley, having a great natural aroma, may create a beautiful bouquet with just two or three stems.

Popular Flowers for a Funeral

Lilies: Whiteness of Lilies symbolizes peace and innocence restored to the soul of the dearly departed.

Roses: White Roses are appropriate to convey a message of reverence, youthfulness and innocence.

Chrysanthemum: ‘Mums are used to show grief and sympathy to the family.

Carnations: For Carnations, red indicates admiration, pink symbolizes remembrance, and white conveys love and innocence. A mixture of three would be a grand arrangement.

funeral

Flowers and Art

Art is a term that could be best explained as the expression of creativity or imagination. Various forms of art may include visual arts and designing, plastic arts, decorative arts, and the performing arts. In addition, painting, drawing, sculpture, literature, printmaking, dance, drama, and architecture are the most widely recognized forms of art. Modern technology and advancement have also generated some new form of art such as photography, video, comics, and computer art.

Floral Art and Its Different Forms:
Floral art is related with exhibition of flowers, flower bearing plants, or other flower related materials. Traditionally, floral art has been a very popular form of art through the generations. Gathering fresh flowers for decorative arrangements in a vase has been quite a treasured activity.

Other popular forms of floral art may contribute drying flowers, flower painting, flower tattoos, flower photos, flower wallpapers, flower screensavers, flower clip art, flower posters, making artificial flowers, and flower drying. Ikebana, the Japanese flower arranging art, is quite popular these days.

Centuries ago, man had also specialized in making flower replicas. Making artificial flowers or imitations of real flowers is a wonderful form of floral art. Fabricated with silk, soap, paper, clay, plastic, porcelain, foam, and polyester, the artificial flower arrangements look as good as real flower arrangements provided they are properly designed.

Drying flowers and arranging dried flowers is a twin form of floral art precisely used for home and office décor. The purpose of drying flowers is typically referred to preserve the most cherished moments of an individual’s life. Dried flowers could be used in bouquets, pressed flower pictures, or potpourri.

Art is generally considered as painting, which is perhaps the most popular form of art. Through the ages, flowers have been enticing the painters and artists. Unfortunately we have lost majority of the symbolism associated with flowers. However, the painters at that time were used flowers to communicate very specific messages about their subjects. The same flower is associated with a different meaning in different cultures.

Flowers and Art Symbols Dictionary:

Rose: A red rose is a symbol of love and passion. White rose symbolizes virginity and purity. Yellow roses symbolize jealousy and infidelity. Red roses are a symbol of the Virgin Mary in Catholicism.

Rosemary: In funeral flowers, it symbolizes remembrance. In wedding bouquets, it symbolizes fidelity.

Sunflowers: Being a blind follower of the sun, sunflower symbolizes craze or foolish passion.

Jasmine: A strongly scented white flower used as a symbol of love in Hinduism.

Carnation: Symbolizes betrothal or engagement. In China, symbolizes a marriage.

Chrysanthemum: The national symbol of Japan. Chrysanthemums symbolize long life.

Daisy: A white daisy is a symbol of innocence.

Lily: Symbolizes innocence, purity and chastity. White Lily represents the purity of the Virgin Mary.

Lotus: A common symbol for birth and rebirth in Asian art. Also symbolizes fertility, creation, and purity.

Orchid: symbolizes perfection.

Violet: A symbol of faithfulness, humility, and chastity.

Honeysuckle: A symbol of generosity. Also a less-common symbol of love.

Iris: Associated with death. The three vertical petals and three sagging sepals are symbols for faith, valor, and wisdom.

Wild Flowers

A wild flower is by definition a flower that grows in the wild. A variety of flowers that is growing and blooming naturally in a field, a meadow, along a hillside, a stream, a forest, or any other wild countryside area is termed as Wild flowers. These flowers offer a breath-taking view for the visitors and make them feel fortunate to be in the company of such a widely scattered natural beauty.

Wild flowers offer beauty as well as a thrilling pass time while collecting them for a flower vase. There are plenty of gorgeous wild flowers in the United States and rest of the world. The fascinating variety of these wild flowers includes various sizes and colors. Some common species are the Apricot Mallow, the Sierra Blue Cup, the Shooting Star, the Mariposa Lily, and the Sierra Tiger Lily. The abundance of these wild flowers primarily attracts the travelers and outdoor enthusiasts.

Some of the salient features that make them very much popular among gardeners and homeowners are written below.

•    These flowers not only look great, but also they can brighten up vacant patches in the yard.
•    They can grow anywhere along buildings, along fences and crosswalks, and particularly along those difficult to maintain areas of residential and commercial premises.
•    They offer variety and blends of colors.
•    These flowers are very easy to grow as they require little or no attention.
•    With wild flowers, one can produce continuous blooms over long seasons, from early spring to winter.
•    Most wild flowers can withstand a drought.
•    They thrive in most soils provided the climatic conditions are favorable.
•    They make a wonderful and colorful splendor within a simple or a fancy vase.

Usually, wild flowers are grown from seed which may be best sown early in the season. Although wild flowers are easy to grow; they will never grow at places where the circumstances are not favorable for them. It means the gardener will first have to determine the kind of flowers to be grown.

When you select your desired wild flowers, the next step is to create the correct environment for them. Most of the wild flowers require wide and open space, well drained and rich in nutrients soil, and a minimum eight hours of sunlight to grow. Hard soil or excess water is not good for the growth of wild flowers. If your garden is full of dampness, wild flowers might be the best choices to cultivate.

When the flowers found favorable conditions in your garden, they will thrive quickly and save your time, money and effort. Now it’s time to know the mature height and spread of each plant. Over planting should be avoided as a 6” plant could grow to a height and spread of 6 feet. Over planting would result in spoiling your hours thinning out your garden rather than enjoying it.

Wild flowers offer seasonal beauty. They look best during the blooming season. Being the part of the natural inevitable cycles of the seasons, they may offer sheer beauty during one part of the year than another.

Summer Flowers

Flowers are one of the most spectacular creations of the nature and probably the best way for sharing sentiments. Especially, summer flowers also provide an excellent opportunity to give your place a stunning visual and aromatic beauty.

With a huge variety of summer flowers, the garden blooms are at their peaks. Selection of right summer flowers depends upon the climatic conditions you live in. Drought-tolerant plants are ideal summer choices. Similarly native plants could be the best choices as they are geared toward the climatic and weather conditions of your place. Native flowers also attract beautiful butterflies and other wildlife, for example hummingbirds, and thus result in a garden with added beauty, vibrant colors and melodious voices.

Many plants also have the tendency to grow well in different climates. These include petunias, zinnias, marigolds, deer grass, etc. Impatiens and columbine are a little more delicate flowers and likely to be planted with shade.

Some famous types of summer flowers are discussed below.

Amaranthus:
Amaranthus is an exotic plant grown for its vitamin fortified grain and the beautiful blue, red and purple blooms and is perfect for flower beds and borders.

American Persimmon:
Also known as Possumwood, the American Persimmon is a tall plant which produces edible fruit. The plant features creamy-yellow bell shaped aromatic flowers and grows wild in the southeast.

Bouvardia:
The Bouvardia is an evergreen plant with star shaped flowers, green leaves and tall stems and thrives in high heat with moderate water. Flower features clusters of yellow, red, white and pink.

Bird of Paradise:
The individual bloom of this unique flower resembles like a bird having bright colors such as orange, yellow, blue and white.

Bellflower:
The bellflower, thrives in July-September season, resembles tiny bells having colors from blue to purple, pink or white. The leaves are narrow and toothed.

Hydrangea:
The plant needs a lot of water. The cluster offers star-shaped pink, red, purple, blue and white flowers.

Lily of the Nile:
In fact it is amaryllis, not lily. Also known as Agapanthus, the Lily of the Nile features funnel-like flowers having various shades of blue.

Pansies and Violets:
Great flowers for flower beds having tons of colors! Potted plants are good enough to adorn your front porch. These flowers may bloom throughout the summer season provided proper maintenance.

Pink Cone Flower:
A wonderful selection for any uncovered garden bed during mid-summer to fall! The flowers grow up to 3 inches and an ideal choice for the back of the flower bed.

Shasta Daisy:
The Shasta Daisy is a tall flower that is tolerant for full sun and heat. The flower may offer blooms for all summer or mid-summer through fall.

Brown-Eyed Susan:
Like Shasta Daisy, the Brown-Eyed Susan is also sun-sturdy, and features deep orange blooms with brown center during all summer or mid-summer through fall.

Hostas:
Comes with a variety of green shades, these low yet leafy plants are great for borders. The tall stemmed flowers bloom from the centers during mid-summer.

Butterfly Bushes:
These are very fragrant flowers that bloom most of the summer. Not only they can withstand with summer heat, but also they attract butterflies and pollinating bees to your summer garden.

Dried Flowers

Everything in this world is mortal. It is a universal truth. Who else can know this fact better than humans? But, still humans always wish about some things if they could last forever, if they could never die. Perhaps this thought drove the humans to think and learn about preserving the things. Humans ultimately achieved the task of preserving certain things, though dead, in a “looking alive” form. Now many different things from insects to flowers are being preserved.

Drying flowers is a simple and inexpensive way to preserve the memories of a gift or a special day and enjoy long after that time has passed. The basic rule for drying is to eliminate the moisture in the flower without rotting it. Dried flowers offer a typical and unique style of decoration. Some basic information about flower drying methods is written below.

Drying Methods:
There are various methods to dry flowers depending upon the type, nature and condition of flowers. Usually, the drying process will take approximately 2 weeks. However, the time may vary according to the moisture content of the flowers, and weather conditions including temperature and humidity.

Harvesting:
Before drying flowers, one must know that the selection of flowers is very important as some flowers just work better than others. Cut flowers which are slightly immature, with the bud not fully open, since the flower will continue to open even after cutting. In most cases, the petals get dropped while drying a fully open flower. Always harvest your selected flowers in late morning, just after the dew has evaporated.

Air Drying:
Air drying is the simplest method for flower drying. For best results, dry the flowers in a dark room with proper ventilation. For bunch drying, gathered flower stems are wrapped tightly with a rubber band and hung upside down from the ceiling with a hook or string, in order to avoid stem bending due to heavy top.

Drying with Silica Gel:
Silica gel is used for accelerating the drying process particularly with flowers having high moisture content or fragile flowers, for example Anemones, Daisies, Pansies, and Zinnias. Silica gel is actually granular and is easily available at any craft store. Spread a 1 inch thick layer of silica gel on the bottom of a shallow, airtight plastic or glass container. Space your flower heads on top of that layer. Then gently cover the flowers with another 1 inch layer of silica gel and let the container sealed for 3-5 days.

Microwave Drying:
The above-said silica gel drying process can be further accelerated by placing the container with flowers and gel inside a microwave for about 3 minutes. Then let the container cool for approximately 20 minutes. Now open the container and check that the flowers are dried completely before removing.

Oven Drying:
Put a single layer of flowers on a cookie sheet with a wire rack. Place it in a preheat oven with 180F temperature and allow the flowers to heat for several hours while keeping the oven door open during the complete process in order to allow the moisture to escape. Let the flower remain on the wire rack overnight to eliminate any remaining moisture.

Artificial Flowers

Artificial flowers and replicas of natural flowers are sometimes fabricated for scientific purposes; however they are mostly used as articles for commercial or home décor.  In different countries, these artificial flowers are manufactured with different materials, for example gold and silver in Ancient Rome, silkworm in Italy, rice-paper in China, painted linen and shavings of stained horn in Egypt, colored feathers in South America, and also wax and tinted shells. Powdered clay, carved or formed soap, wire frames covered with stretched nylon netting, polyester and plastic are some commonly used raw materials these days. Since 1970s, polyester fabrics have been primarily used for the manufacturing of artificial flowers.

History:
The Chinese are believed to be the pioneers in mastering the skills of making floral replicas centuries ago. These floral replicas, fabricated with silk, were used for artistic expression. However, the production of imitation flowers was not common for commercial purpose. It was the Italians who ignite the commerce of artificial flowers by making fake flowers from cocoons of silkworms, assembling dyed blooms into floral arrangements and start selling them way back in the 12th century.

Soon after, the Italian techniques of producing floral replicas were adopted by the French who, by the 14th century, became the most esteemed producers of artificial flowers. Paris is also believed as the birthplace of the modern silk flowers. French flower artisans ended in England during the Revolution. The craft reached America through the English settlers in the early 1800s. In the Victorian Age, the floral arts got a new trend with the introduction of floral replicas fabricated with satin, velvet, crepe, muslin and gauze.

Production:
Now with many distinct fabricating processes, the industry has become highly specialized. With hundreds of factories in the Pearl River delta area of Guangdong province, China has become the chief producer and exporter of fake flowers around the world. Thousands of containers of floral and plant replicas are exported from the factories in this region to all parts of the world every year.

Manufacturing:
It is mentioned above that polyester and plastic are the two major materials used for manufacturing. Let’s have a look at different processes of flower making with these materials.

Polyester and Paper Flowers:
The flower making with polyester and paper includes five major processes. Initially the polyester fabric is put in gelatin in order to make it stiff. Then various polyester fabrics and materials are cut into shapes suitable for forming leaves and petals. Mostly the cutting is done with stamps in order to get multiple pieces with a single cut. Next step includes the impression of veins on the leaves. This is done by means of a dye, and silk screen printing. With the use of various goffering irons, the petals are given their natural rounded form. Final stage includes the assembling of petals and other parts of flower.

Plastic Flowers:
Injection moulding is rather the best and easiest way to manufacture plastic flowers of the same designs in bulk quantity. The process involves the injection of plastic into a predesigned metal mould, which may produce complete flowers as well as flower parts that can be assembled later.